MySQL 字符类型大小写敏感

mysql字符类型默认是不区分大小写的,即select * from t where name='AAA'与='aaa'没区别,以下是测试的例子

(root@localhost)[hello]> create table test1(id int, name varchar(10));
(root@localhost)[hello]> insert into test1 values(1,'aaa'),(2,'AAA'),(3,'bbb'),(4,'BbB');
(root@localhost)[hello]> select * from test1;
+------+------+
| id | name |
+------+------+
| 1 | aaa |
| 2 | AAA |
| 3 | bbb |
| 4 | BbB |
+------+------+

(root@localhost)[hello]> select * from test1 where name = 'AAA';
+------+------+
| id | name |
+------+------+
| 1 | aaa |
| 2 | AAA |
+------+------+

(root@localhost)[hello]> select * from test1 where name = 'aaa';
+------+------+
| id | name |
+------+------+
| 1 | aaa |
| 2 | AAA |
+------+------+

可以看到此时where条件后面的'AAA'与'aaa',查出来的结果没啥区别。

如果只想找出'AAA'的可以有以下几种办法1.在sql中加入binary关键字

(root@localhost)[hello]> select * from test1 where binary name = 'AAA';
+------+------+
| id | name |
+------+------+
| 2 | AAA |
+------+------+

2.修改列的定义

先查看原始表的定义

(root@localhost)[hello]> show create table test1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Table: test1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `test1` (
 `id` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
 `name` varchar(10) DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4

修改表test1的name列

alter table test1 modify column name varchar(10) character set utf8mb4 collate utf8mb4_bin default null;

collate utf8mb4_bin表示where过滤或者order by排序区分大小写

此时查看test1的定义

(root@localhost)[hello]> show create table test1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Table: test1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `test1` (
 `id` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
 `name` varchar(10) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_bin DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4

接着再执行查询语句

(root@localhost)[hello]> select * from test1 where name='AAA';
+------+------+
| id | name |
+------+------+
| 2 | AAA |
+------+------+

下面再创建一张test2表,就会发现上面修改列的语句其实相当于在创建表时varchar后面跟binary

(root@localhost)[hello]> create table test2(id int, name varchar(10) binary);
(root@localhost)[hello]> show create table test2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Table: test2
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `test2` (
 `id` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
 `name` varchar(10) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_bin DEFAULT NULL
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4

下面介绍如何设置字符大小写敏感

  • 数据库级别设置字符大小写敏感

创建

create database <db_name> default character set utf8mb4 collate utf8mb4_bin;

修改

alter database <db_name> default character set utf8mb4 collate utf8mb4_bin;
  • 表级别设置字符大小写敏感

创建

create table <tb_name> (
......
) engine=innodb default charset=utf8mb4 collate=utf8mb4_bin;

修改

alter table <tb_name> engine=innodb default charset=utf8mb4 collate=utf8mb4_bin;
  • 列级别设置字符大小写敏感

创建

create table <tb_name> (
`field1` varchar(10) character set utf8mb4 collate utf8mb4_bin,
......
)

修改

alter table <tb_name> modify column `field1` varchar(10) character set utf8mb4 collate utf8mb4_bin default null;

继承关系是列-->表-->库,优先级是列>表>库

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