BeautifulSoup中Find和Find_All的使用详解

爬虫利器BeautifulSoup中find和find_all的使用方法

二话不说,先上段HTML例子

<html>
  <head>
    <title>
      index
    </title>
  </head>
  <body>
     <div>
        <ul>
           <li id="flask"class="item-0"><a href="link1.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >first item</a></li>
          <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >second item</a></li>
          <li class="item-inactie"><a href="link3.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >third item</a></li>
          <li class="item-1"><a href="link4.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >fourth item</a></li>
          <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >fifth item</a>
         </ul>
     </div>
    <li> hello world </li>
  </body>
</html>

使用BeautifulSoup前需要先构建BeautifulSoup实例

# 构建beautifulsoup实例
soup = BeautifulSoup(html,'lxml')
# 第一个参数是要匹配的内容
# 第二个参数是beautifulsoup要采用的模块,即规则

需要注意的是,导入对的模块需要事先安装,此处导入的LXML事先已经安装。可以导入的模块可通过查询BeautifulSoup的文档查看

D805BFC3-0ED6-442C-64BB-99B7A22E8D5F.png

接下来是find和find_all的介绍

1. find只返回第一个匹配到的对象语法:

find(name, attrs, recursive, text, **wargs)    
# recursive 递归的,循环的

127944AC-C135-8338-CBE9-4E2509A0C20F.png

参数:

参数名 作用
name 查找标签
text 查找文本
attrs 基于attrs参数

例子:

# find查找一次
li = soup.find('li')
print('find_li:',li)
print('li.text(返回标签的内容):',li.text)
print('li.attrs(返回标签的属性):',li.attrs)
print('li.string(返回标签内容为字符串):',li.string)

运行结果:

find_li: <li class="item-0" id="flask"><a href="link1.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >first item</a></li>li.text(返回标签的内容): first itemli.attrs(返回标签的属性): {'id': 'flask', 'class': ['item-0']}li.string(返回标签内容为字符串): first item

find也可以通过‘属性=值'的方法进行匹配

li = soup.find(id = 'flask')
print(li,'\n')
<li class="item-0" id="flask"><a href="link1.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >first item</a></li>

需要注意的是,因为class是python的保留关键字,若要匹配标签内class的属性,需要特殊的方法,有以下两种:

  • 在attrs属性用字典的方式进行参数传递
  • BeautifulSoup自带的特别关键字class_
# 第一种:在attrs属性用字典进行传递参数
find_class = soup.find(attrs={'class':'item-1'})
print('findclass:',find_class,'\n')
# 第二种:BeautifulSoup中的特别关键字参数class_
beautifulsoup_class_ = soup.find(class_ = 'item-1')
print('BeautifulSoup_class_:',beautifulsoup_class_,'\n')

运行结果

findclass: <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >second item</a></li>

BeautifulSoup_class_: <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >second item</a></li>

2. find_all

返回所有匹配到的结果,区别于find(find只返回查找到的第一个结果)

语法:

find_all(name, attrs, recursive, text, limit, **kwargs)

6357D229-0A57-BD87-7DE0-B19D89617419.png

参数名 作用
name 查找标签
text 查找文本
attrs 基于attrs参数

与find一样的语法

上代码

# find_all 查找所有
li_all = soup.find_all('li')
for li_all in li_all:
	print('---')
	print('匹配到的li:',li_all)
	print('li的内容:',li_all.text)
	print('li的属性:',li_all.attrs)

运行结果:

---匹配到的li: <li class="item-0" id="flask"><a href="link1.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >first item</a></li>li的内容: first itemli的属性: {'id': 'flask', 'class': ['item-0']}---匹配到的li: <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >second item</a></li>li的内容: second itemli的属性: {'class': ['item-1']}---匹配到的li: <li cvlass="item-inactie"><a href="link3.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >third item</a></li>li的内容: third itemli的属性: {'cvlass': 'item-inactie'}---匹配到的li: <li class="item-1"><a href="link4.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >fourth item</a></li>li的内容: fourth itemli的属性: {'class': ['item-1']}---匹配到的li: <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >fifth item</a></li>li的内容: fifth item

附上比较灵活的find_all查询方法:

# 最灵活的使用方式
li_quick = soup.find_all(attrs={'class':'item-1'})
for li_quick in li_quick:
	print('最灵活的查找方法:',li_quick)

运行结果:

  • 最灵活的查找方法: <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >second item</a></li>
  • 最灵活的查找方法: <li class="item-1"><a href="link4.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >fourth item</a></li>

完整代码:

# coding=utf8
# @Author= CaiJunxuan
# @QQ=469590490
# @Wechat:15916454524

# beautifulsoup

# 导入beautifulsoup模块
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

# HTML例子
html = '''
<html>
  <head>
    <title>
      index
    </title>
  </head>
  <body>
     <div>
        <ul>
           <li id="flask"class="item-0"><a href="link1.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >first item</a></li>
          <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >second item</a></li>
          <li cvlass="item-inactie"><a href="link3.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >third item</a></li>
          <li class="item-1"><a href="link4.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >fourth item</a></li>
          <li class="item-0"><a href="link5.html" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" rel="external nofollow" >fifth item</a>
         </ul>
     </div>
    <li> hello world </li>
  </body>
</html>
'''

# 构建beautifulsoup实例
soup = BeautifulSoup(html,'lxml')
# 第一个参数是要匹配的内容
# 第二个参数是beautifulsoup要采用的模块,即规则
# html.parser是python内置的结构匹配方法,但是效率不如lxml所以不常用
# lxml 采用lxml模块
# html5lib,该模块可以将内容转换成html5对象
# 若想要以上功能,就需要具备对应的模块,比如使用lxml就要安装lxml

# 在bs4当中有很多种匹配方法,但常用有两种:

# find查找一次
li = soup.find('li')
print('find_li:',li)
print('li.text(返回标签的内容):',li.text)
print('li.attrs(返回标签的属性):',li.attrs)
print('li.string(返回标签内容为字符串):',li.string)
print(50*'*','\n')

# find可以通过'属性 = 值'的方法进行select
li = soup.find(id = 'flask')
print(li,'\n')
# 因为class是python的保留关键字,所以无法直接查找class这个关键字
# 有两种方法可以进行class属性查询
# 第一种:在attrs属性用字典进行传递参数
find_class = soup.find(attrs={'class':'item-1'})
print('findclass:',find_class,'\n')
# 第二种:BeautifulSoup中的特别关键字参数class_
beautifulsoup_class_ = soup.find(class_ = 'item-1')
print('BeautifulSoup_class_:',beautifulsoup_class_,'\n')

# find_all 查找所有
li_all = soup.find_all('li')
for li_all in li_all:
	print('---')
	print('匹配到的li:',li_all)
	print('li的内容:',li_all.text)
	print('li的属性:',li_all.attrs)

# 最灵活的使用方式
li_quick = soup.find_all(attrs={'class':'item-1'})
for li_quick in li_quick:
	print('最灵活的查找方法:',li_quick)
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