实战干货之基于SpringBoot的RabbitMQ多种模式队列

环境准备


安装RabbitMQ

由于RabbitMQ的安装比较简单,这里不再赘述。可自行到官网下载http://www.rabbitmq.com/download.html

依赖

SpringBoot项目导入依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-amqp</artifactId>
</dependency>
连接配置

配置文件添加如下配置(根据自身情况修改配置)

spring.rabbitmq.host=127.0.0.1
spring.rabbitmq.port=5672
spring.rabbitmq.username=guest
spring.rabbitmq.password=guest
#spring.rabbitmq.virtual-host=acelin
五种队列模式实现
1 点对点的队列

在java配置文件DirectRabbitConfig中先声明一个队列用于接收信息

public static final String PEER_TO_PEER_QUEUE = "peer-to-peer-queue"; // 点对点队列

/******************************* Peer-to-peer ******************************/
@Bean
public Queue peer2peerQueue() {
    return new Queue(PEER_TO_PEER_QUEUE,true);
}

创建一个消费者类Peer2PeerConsumers。用@RabbitListener对声明的队列进行监听

@Component
public class Peer2PeerConsumers extends Base {

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.PEER_TO_PEER_QUEUE)
    public void consumer2(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("peer-to-peer消费者收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }
}

创造一个消息生产者。在编码形式上,直接把消息发发送给接收的消息队列

/**
 * 【点对点模式】
 * @param task 消息内容
 **/
@PostMapping("/peer-to-peer/{task}")
public String peerToPeer(@PathVariable("task") String task){
    rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(DirectRabbitConfig.PEER_TO_PEER_QUEUE,task);
    return "ok";

}

启动项目。队列绑定到默认交换机

C60C4508-7919-575C-E604-512E86928061.png

调用生产者接口产生消息,可看到的消费者立即接收到信息

peer-to-peer消费者收到消息  : (Body:'hi mq' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=text/plain, contentEncoding=UTF-8, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=, receivedRoutingKey=peer-to-peer-queue, deliveryTag=1, consumerTag=amq.ctag-vuKWCYLNLn3GwRJKJO5-Mg, consumerQueue=peer-to-peer-queue])

这里要说明一点的是,点对点模式虽然编码形式只与队列交互,但其本质上还是要跟交换机交互的,本质跟下面要介绍的路由模式其实是一样的。

查看convertAndSend方法的源码,可以看到我们虽然没有进行交换机和队列的绑定,发送消息是也没指定交换机,但是程序会为我们绑定默认的交换机。

The default exchange is implicitly bound to every queue, with a routing key equal to the queue name. It is not possible to explicitly bind to, or unbind from the default exchange. It also cannot be deleted.

默认交换机会隐式绑定到每个队列,路由键等于队列名称。我们无法明确绑定到默认交换机或从默认交换中解除绑定。它也无法删除。

且我们第一个参数传递的是队列的名称,但实际上程序是以这个名字作为路由,将同名队列跟默认交换机做绑定。所以的消息会根据该路由信息,通过默认交换机分发到同名队列上。(我们通过接收的信息receivedRoutingKey=peer-to-peer-queueconsumerQueue=peer-to-peer-queue也可以看的出来)

2 工作队列模式Work Queue

在java配置文件DirectRabbitConfig中先声明一个工作队列

public static final String WORK_QUEUE = "work-queue"; // 工作队列


/******************************* Work Queue ******************************/
@Bean
public Queue workQueue() {
    return new Queue(WORK_QUEUE,true);
}

创建一个消费者类WorkConsumers。同样用@RabbitListener对声明的队列进行监听

@Component
public class WorkConsumers extends Base {

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.WORK_QUEUE)
    public void consumer1(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("work消费者[1]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.WORK_QUEUE)
    public void consumer2(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("work消费者[2]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }
}

创造一个消息生产者。在编码形式上,直接把消息发发送给接收的消息队列

/**
 * 【工作队列模式】
 * @param task 消息内容
 **/
@PostMapping("/work/{task}")
public String sendWorkMessage(@PathVariable("task") String task){
	
	rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(DirectRabbitConfig.WORK_QUEUE,task);
	return "ok";

}

启动项目,同样的,工作队列也是绑定到默认交换机。

00AE8C8A-AC6A-4B08-495D-FD100841D7DF.png

调用生产者接口连续发送几次消息,可看到两个消费者竞争对队列消息进行消费,一条消息只被一个消费者消费,不会出现重复消费的情况,因此工作队列模式也被称为竞争消费者模式。

- work消费者[1]收到消息  : (Body:'task1' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=text/plain, contentEncoding=UTF-8, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=, receivedRoutingKey=work-queue, deliveryTag=1, consumerTag=amq.ctag-PUYjfVq56aEn-7a9DzLNzQ, consumerQueue=work-queue])

- work消费者[2]收到消息  : (Body:'task2' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=text/plain, contentEncoding=UTF-8, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=, receivedRoutingKey=work-queue, deliveryTag=1, consumerTag=amq.ctag-1IVtDalFUCKVvYpFr_GF8A, consumerQueue=work-queue])

- work消费者[1]收到消息  : (Body:'task3' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=text/plain, contentEncoding=UTF-8, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=, receivedRoutingKey=work-queue, deliveryTag=2, consumerTag=amq.ctag-PUYjfVq56aEn-7a9DzLNzQ, consumerQueue=work-queue])

- work消费者[2]收到消息  : (Body:'task4' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=text/plain, contentEncoding=UTF-8, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=, receivedRoutingKey=work-queue, deliveryTag=2, consumerTag=amq.ctag-1IVtDalFUCKVvYpFr_GF8A, consumerQueue=work-queue])

事实上,竞争消费者模式本质就是多个消费者对同一个队列消息进行消费。另外,与点对点模式一样,工作队列模式的也是用到了默认交换机进行消息分发。因此于基于的Direct交换机的路由模式的原理本质上都是一样的,因此,某种程度上,我们也可以用路由模式实现工作队列模式,这点我们下面介绍路由模式再进行展开

3 路由模式Routing

在java配置文件DirectRabbitConfig中先声明2个队列和一个direct类型的交换机,然后将队列1和与交换机用一个路由键1进行绑定,队列2用路由键2与队列进行绑定

public static final String DIRECT_QUEUE_ONE = "directQueue-1"; // Direct队列名称1
public static final String DIRECT_QUEUE_TWO = "directQueue-2"; // Direct队列名称2

public static final String MY_DIRECT_EXCHANGE = "myDirectExchange"; // Direct交换机名称

public static final String ROUTING_KEY_ONE = "direct.routing-key-1"; // direct路由标识1
public static final String ROUTING_KEY_ONE = "direct.routing-key-2"; // direct路由标识2

/******************************* Direct ******************************/
@Bean
public Queue directQueueOne() {
    return new Queue(DIRECT_QUEUE_ONE,true);
}

@Bean
public Queue directQueueTwo() {
    return new Queue(DIRECT_QUEUE_TWO,true);
}

@Bean
public DirectExchange directExchange() {
    return new DirectExchange(MY_DIRECT_EXCHANGE,true,false);
}

@Bean
public Binding bindingDirectOne() {
    return BindingBuilder.bind(directQueueOne()).to(directExchange()).with(ROUTING_KEY_ONE);
}

@Bean
public Binding bindingDirectTwo() {
    return BindingBuilder.bind(directQueueTwo()).to(directExchange()).with(ROUTING_KEY_TWO);
}

创建一个消费者类DirectConsumers。在每个消费者上,我们用3个消费者注解@RabbitListener对声明的队列进行监听。消费者1和3监听队列1,消费者2监听队列2

@Component
public class DirectConsumers extends Base {

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.DIRECT_QUEUE_ONE)
    public void consumer1(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("Direct消费者[1]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.DIRECT_QUEUE_TWO)
    public void consumer2(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("Direct消费者[2]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.DIRECT_QUEUE_ONE)
    public void consumer3(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("Direct消费者[3]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }
}

创造一个消息生产者。发送消息时,带上路由键1信息

/**
 * 【Direct路由模式】
 * @param message 消息内容
 **/
@PostMapping("/direct/{message}")
public String sendDirectMessage(@PathVariable("message") String message) {

    Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
    map.put("messageId", String.valueOf(UUID.randomUUID()));
    map.put("messageData", message);

    /* 设置路由标识MY_ROUTING_KEY,发送到交换机MY_DIRECT_EXCHANGE */
    rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(DirectRabbitConfig.MY_DIRECT_EXCHANGE,DirectRabbitConfig.ROUTING_KEY_ONE, map);
    return "ok";
}

启动项目,查看该交换机的绑定情况

17F477A5-F3F5-B95E-7EA4-2E81222AE9FB.png

发送多条信息,可以看到,由于队列2没有通过路由键1跟交换机进行绑定,所以对于监控队列2的消费者2,其无法结束到的带有路由键1的消息,而消费者1和3则竞争消费队列1的消息

- Direct消费者[3]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=54682b16-0142-46af-be0c-1156df1f27a7, messageData=msg-1}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myDirectExchange, receivedRoutingKey=direct.routing-key-1, deliveryTag=15, consumerTag=amq.ctag-CsuZL9KKByH9IDtqTKe-fg, consumerQueue=directQueue-1])

- Direct消费者[1]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=66cd296a-9a60-4458-8e87-72ed13f9964b, messageData=msg-2}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myDirectExchange, receivedRoutingKey=direct.routing-key-1, deliveryTag=2, consumerTag=amq.ctag-hWmdY04YuLL0O2rgeSlxsw, consumerQueue=directQueue-1])

- Direct消费者[3]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=48c0830e-2207-47ec-bd3e-a958fec48118, messageData=msg-3}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myDirectExchange, receivedRoutingKey=direct.routing-key-1, deliveryTag=16, consumerTag=amq.ctag-CsuZL9KKByH9IDtqTKe-fg, consumerQueue=directQueue-1])

我们如果对新增一个队列3,通过路由键1与交换机进行绑定,消费者独立监听队列3,那么我们不难猜到,队列3将和队列1同样拿到一条消息,相当于广播的概念,但我们会发现如果要这么做,似乎路由键无足轻重,因此rabbitmq提供了一种特殊的交换机来处理这种场景,不需要路由键的参与。我们接着往下看

4 发布/订阅模式Publish/Subscribe

在java配置文件DirectRabbitConfig中先声明Fanout交换机和两队列,并将两个队列与该交换机进行绑定

public static final String MY_FANOUT_EXCHANGE = "myFanoutExchange"; // Fanout交换机名称

public static final String FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE = "fanout-queue-1"; // Fanout队列名称1
public static final String FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO = "fanout-queue-2"; // Fanout队列名称2

/******************************* Fanout ******************************/
@Bean
public Queue fanoutQueueOne() {
    return new Queue(FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE,true);
}

@Bean
public Queue fanoutQueueTwo() {
    return new Queue(FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO,true);
}

@Bean
public FanoutExchange fanoutExchange(){
    return new FanoutExchange(MY_FANOUT_EXCHANGE,true,false);
}

@Bean
public Binding bindingFanoutOne() {
    return BindingBuilder.bind(fanoutQueueOne()).to(fanoutExchange());
}

@Bean
public Binding bindingFanoutTwo() {
    return BindingBuilder.bind(fanoutQueueTwo()).to(fanoutExchange());
}

创建一个消费者类FanoutConsumers。创建两个消费者,分表对两个队列进行监听

@Component
public class FanoutConsumers extends Base {

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE)
    public void consumer1(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("FANOUT消费者[1]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO)
    public void consumer2(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("FANOUT消费者[2]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }
}

创造一个消息生产者。将消息发送给Fanout交换机

/**
 * 【工作队列模式】
 * @param task 消息内容
 **/
@PostMapping("/work/{task}")
public String sendWorkMessage(@PathVariable("task") String task){
	
	rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(DirectRabbitConfig.WORK_QUEUE,task);
	return "ok";

}

启动项目,我们可以看到交换机与两个队列进行了绑定,但是路由键那一栏是空的。

222E07AB-5BEB-8808-C5B6-C443CFB8F76A.png

发送两条消息。

/**
 * 【Fanout发布订阅模式】
 * @param message 消息内容
 **/
@PostMapping("/fanout/{message}")
public String sendFanoutMessage(@PathVariable("message") String message) {

    Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
    map.put("messageId", String.valueOf(UUID.randomUUID()));
    map.put("messageData", message);

    /* 直接跟交换机MY_FANOUT_EXCHANGE交互 */
    rabbitTemplate.setExchange(DirectRabbitConfig.MY_FANOUT_EXCHANGE);
    rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(map);
    return "ok";
}

可以看到,两个消费者都拿到了同样的数据,达到了广播的效果。

- FANOUT消费者[2]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=a4bf1931-1db8-4cb9-8b01-397f43a82660, messageData=Hi Fanout}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myFanoutExchange, receivedRoutingKey=, deliveryTag=1, consumerTag=amq.ctag-ncVmsRM7xHLZ0iAJT2tSTg, consumerQueue=fanout-queue-2])

- FANOUT消费者[1]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=a4bf1931-1db8-4cb9-8b01-397f43a82660, messageData=Hi Fanout}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myFanoutExchange, receivedRoutingKey=, deliveryTag=1, consumerTag=amq.ctag-zR3Oi0MVESq8qushlAMa3Q, consumerQueue=fanout-queue-1])

- FANOUT消费者[1]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=51f66720-35dd-4abf-9d33-24acf7786ed8, messageData=666}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myFanoutExchange, receivedRoutingKey=, deliveryTag=2, consumerTag=amq.ctag-zR3Oi0MVESq8qushlAMa3Q, consumerQueue=fanout-queue-1])

- FANOUT消费者[2]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=51f66720-35dd-4abf-9d33-24acf7786ed8, messageData=666}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myFanoutExchange, receivedRoutingKey=, deliveryTag=2, consumerTag=amq.ctag-ncVmsRM7xHLZ0iAJT2tSTg, consumerQueue=fanout-queue-2])
5 通配符模式Topics

在java配置文件DirectRabbitConfig中先声明一个Topic交换机、两个工作队列和三个通配绑定键,其中一个队列通过两个不同通配绑定键与交换机绑定,另外一个队列用第三个绑定键进行绑定。

public static final String WORK_QUEUE = "work-queue"; // 工作队列


/******************************* Work Queue ******************************/
@Bean
public Queue workQueue() {
    return new Queue(WORK_QUEUE,true);
}

通过rabbitmq管理页面我们可以看到交换机与队列的绑定变化,可以看到队列1车工绑定了两个通配键

4E142EBE-0E5D-D43F-2446-415839C220A3.png

创建一个消费者类TopicConsumers。创建两个消费者分别对两个队列做监听。

@Component
public class WorkConsumers extends Base {

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.WORK_QUEUE)
    public void consumer1(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("work消费者[1]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }

    @RabbitListener(queues = DirectRabbitConfig.WORK_QUEUE)
    public void consumer2(Object testMessage) {
        logger.debug("work消费者[2]收到消息  : " + testMessage.toString());
    }
}

创造一个消息生产者。发送3条不同的消息,分别带上三个不同的路由键

/**
 * 【Topic通配符模式】
 * @param message 消息内容
 **/
@PostMapping("/topic/{message}")
public String sendTopicMessage(@PathVariable("message") String message) {

    Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();

    /* 直接跟交换机MY_FANOUT_EXCHANGE交互 */
    rabbitTemplate.setExchange(DirectRabbitConfig.MY_TOPIC_EXCHANGE);

    map.put("messageId", String.valueOf(UUID.randomUUID()));
    map.put("messageData", message + "TEST1");
    rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(DirectRabbitConfig.TOPIC_ROUTING_KEY_ONE,map);

    map.put("messageId", String.valueOf(UUID.randomUUID()));
    map.put("messageData", message + "TEST2");
    rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(DirectRabbitConfig.TOPIC_ROUTING_KEY_TWO,map);

    map.put("messageId", String.valueOf(UUID.randomUUID()));
    map.put("messageData", message + "TEST3");
    rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(DirectRabbitConfig.TOPIC_ROUTING_KEY_THREE,map);

    return "ok";
}

路由键声明如下:

public static final String TOPIC_ROUTING_KEY_ONE = "topic.a1.b1.c1"; // topic路由键1
public static final String TOPIC_ROUTING_KEY_TWO = "topic.a1.b1";    // topic路由键2
public static final String TOPIC_ROUTING_KEY_THREE = "topic.a2.b1";  // topic路由键3

启动项目,调用生产者的接口,查看两个消费者的消费情况。

- TOPIC消费者[2]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=82abd282-1110-4f1a-b09e-ae9a43c560c3, messageData=hi topic! TEST1}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myTopicExchange, receivedRoutingKey=topic.a1.b1.c1, deliveryTag=1, consumerTag=amq.ctag-wlRVC5xWiN8glrtA2_i6uA, consumerQueue=topic-queue-2])

- TOPIC消费者[1]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=b2039557-75d8-47d5-93a0-2a03a38fabc7, messageData=hi topic! TEST2}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myTopicExchange, receivedRoutingKey=topic.a1.b1, deliveryTag=1, consumerTag=amq.ctag-F6ByjknEnCjh7XVolNfmcg, consumerQueue=topic-queue-1])

- TOPIC消费者[2]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=b2039557-75d8-47d5-93a0-2a03a38fabc7, messageData=hi topic! TEST2}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myTopicExchange, receivedRoutingKey=topic.a1.b1, deliveryTag=2, consumerTag=amq.ctag-wlRVC5xWiN8glrtA2_i6uA, consumerQueue=topic-queue-2])

- TOPIC消费者[1]收到消息  : (Body:'{messageId=3a8f3164-706f-4523-bd2a-4fee73595fbb, messageData=hi topic! TEST3}' MessageProperties [headers={}, contentType=application/x-java-serialized-object, contentLength=0, receivedDeliveryMode=PERSISTENT, priority=0, redelivered=false, receivedExchange=myTopicExchange, receivedRoutingKey=topic.a2.b1, deliveryTag=2, consumerTag=amq.ctag-F6ByjknEnCjh7XVolNfmcg, consumerQueue=topic-queue-1])

可以看到,路由键前缀为topic.a1的信息都可以被绑定了topic.a1.#的队列接收到,而绑定了topic.a1.*的队列只能接收到topic.a1后面带一个单词的信息,由于队列1还通过topic.*.b1绑定交换机,因此携带路由键"topic.a2.b1"的信息同样也被队列1接收

topic交换机是direct交换机做的改造的。两者的区别主要体现在路由键和绑定键格式上的限制不同。

路由键:必须是由点分隔的单词列表。单词形式不限。比如一个主题建:<主题1>.<主题2>.<主题3>

绑定键:格式上和路由键一致,但多了两个通配符*##代表任意数量的单词,包括0个。*标识一个单词。

使用上,一个绑定键,我们可以看成是对一类具有多个特征的物体的一个抽象,由点分割的每个单词,我们可以看成一个主题或是一个特征。因此只要做好消息特征的归纳抽象,加上通配符的使用,我们就有很高的自由度去处理任意类型的消息

总结

以上就是关于RabbitMQ五种队列模式的实战演练,关于RabbitMQ其它实战与知识理解后续会相继分享,感兴趣的同学欢迎留言讨论

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